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ASP.NET MVC——学习WebAPI

时间:2016-04-28 17:03:18      阅读:12198      评论:0      收藏:0      [点我收藏+]

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原文地址:http://www.cnblogs.com/jiekzou/

微软有了Webservice和WCF,为什么还要有WebAPI?

用过WCF的人应该都清楚,面对那一大堆复杂的配置文件,有时候一出问题,真的会叫人抓狂。而且供不同的客户端调用不是很方便。不得不承认WCF的功能确实非常强大,可是有时候我们通常不需要那么复杂的功能,只需要简单的仅通过使用Http或Https来调用的增删改查功能,这时,WebAPI应运而生。那么什么时候考虑使用WebAPI呢?

当你遇到以下这些情况的时候,就可以考虑使用Web API了。

  • 需要Web Service但是不需要SOAP
  • 需要在已有的WCF服务基础上建立non-soap-based http服务
  • 只想发布一些简单的Http服务,不想使用相对复杂的WCF配置
  • 发布的服务可能会被带宽受限的设备访问
  • 希望使用开源框架,关键时候可以自己调试或者自定义一下框架

熟悉MVC的朋友你可能会觉得Web API 与MVC很类似。

Demo

  1、新建项目,WebApi

技术分享  

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  2、新建类Product

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1 public class Product
2     {
3        public int Id { get; set; }
4        public string Name { get; set; }
5        public string Category { get; set; }
6        public decimal Price { get; set; }
7      }
Product

 

  3、新建控制器Products,为了演示,我这里不连接数据库,直接代码中构造假数据

技术分享技术分享
 1 using System.Net.Http;
 2 using System.Web.Http;
 3 
 4 public class ProductsController : ApiController
 5     {
 6         Product[] products = new Product[] 
 7         { 
 8             new Product { Id = 1, Name = "Tomato Soup", Category = "Groceries", Price = 1 }, 
 9             new Product { Id = 2, Name = "Yo-yo", Category = "Toys", Price = 3.75M }, 
10             new Product { Id = 3, Name = "Hammer", Category = "Hardware", Price = 16.99M } 
11         };
12 
13         public IEnumerable<Product> GetAllProducts()
14         {
15             return products;
16         }
17 
18         public IHttpActionResult GetProduct(int id)
19         {
20             var product = products.FirstOrDefault((p) => p.Id == id);
21             if (product == null)
22             {
23                 return NotFound();
24             }
25             return Ok(product);
26         }
27     }
ProductsController

  

  4、新建Index.html来测试WebAPI的调用,代码如下:

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 1 <!DOCTYPE html>
 2 <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
 3 <head>
 4     <title>Product App</title>
 5 </head>
 6 <body>
 7 
 8     <div>
 9         <h2>All Products</h2>
10         <ul id="products" />
11     </div>
12     <div>
13         <h2>Search by ID</h2>
14         <input type="text" id="prodId" size="5" />
15         <input type="button" value="Search" onclick="find();" />
16         <p id="product" />
17     </div>
18 
19     <script src="http://ajax.aspnetcdn.com/ajax/jQuery/jquery-2.0.3.min.js"></script>
20     <script>
21         var uri = ‘api/products‘;
22 
23         $(document).ready(function () {
24             $.getJSON(uri)
25                 .done(function (data) {
26                     $.each(data, function (key, item) {
27                         $(‘<li>‘, { text: formatItem(item) }).appendTo($(‘#products‘));
28                     });
29                 });
30         });
31 
32         function formatItem(item) {
33             return item.Name + ‘: $‘ + item.Price;
34         }
35 
36         function find() {
37             var id = $(‘#prodId‘).val();
38             $.getJSON(uri + ‘/‘ + id)
39                 .done(function (data) {
40                     $(‘#product‘).text(formatItem(data));
41                 })
42                 .fail(function (jqXHR, textStatus, err) {
43                     $(‘#product‘).text(‘Error: ‘ + err);
44                 });
45         }
46     </script>
47 </body>
48 </html>
Html

 

  运行结果如下:

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WebAPI授权

 

  1、新建授权过滤器类

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/* ==============================================================================
   * 功能描述:APIAuthorizeAttribute  
   * 创 建 者:Eason-deng
   * 创建日期:2016/04/28 11:37:45
   * 模仿练习
==============================================================================*/
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Net;
using System.Net.Http;
using System.Security.Principal;
using System.Text;
using System.Threading;
using System.Web;
using System.Web.Http.Filters;
using Uuch.HP.WebAPI.Helper;

namespace Uuch.HP.WebAPI.Filter
{
    public class APIAuthorizeAttribute : AuthorizationFilterAttribute
    {
        public override void OnAuthorization(System.Web.Http.Controllers.HttpActionContext actionContext)
        {
            //如果用户使用了forms authentication,就不必在做basic authentication了
            if (Thread.CurrentPrincipal.Identity.IsAuthenticated)
            {
                return;
            }

            var authHeader = actionContext.Request.Headers.Authorization;

            if (authHeader != null)
            {
                if (authHeader.Scheme.Equals("basic", StringComparison.OrdinalIgnoreCase) &&
                    !String.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(authHeader.Parameter))
                {
                    var credArray = GetCredentials(authHeader);
                    var userName = credArray[0];
                    var key = credArray[1];
                    string ip = System.Web.HttpContext.Current.Request.UserHostAddress;
                    //if (IsResourceOwner(userName, actionContext))
                    //{
                        //You can use Websecurity or asp.net memebrship provider to login, for
                        //for he sake of keeping example simple, we used out own login functionality
                    if (APIAuthorizeInfoValidate.ValidateApi(userName,key,ip))//Uuch.HPKjy.Core.Customs.APIAuthorizeInfo.GetModel(userName, key, ip) != null
                        {
                            var currentPrincipal = new GenericPrincipal(new GenericIdentity(userName), null);
                            Thread.CurrentPrincipal = currentPrincipal;
                            return;
                        }
                   //}
                }
            }

            HandleUnauthorizedRequest(actionContext);
        }

        private string[] GetCredentials(System.Net.Http.Headers.AuthenticationHeaderValue authHeader)
        {

            //Base 64 encoded string
            var rawCred = authHeader.Parameter;
            var encoding = Encoding.GetEncoding("iso-8859-1");
            var cred = encoding.GetString(Convert.FromBase64String(rawCred));

            var credArray = cred.Split(‘:‘);

            return credArray;
        }

        private bool IsResourceOwner(string userName, System.Web.Http.Controllers.HttpActionContext actionContext)
        {
            var routeData = actionContext.Request.GetRouteData();
            var resourceUserName = routeData.Values["userName"] as string;

            if (resourceUserName == userName)
            {
                return true;
            }
            return false;
        }

        private void HandleUnauthorizedRequest(System.Web.Http.Controllers.HttpActionContext actionContext)
        {
            actionContext.Response = actionContext.Request.CreateResponse(HttpStatusCode.Unauthorized);

            actionContext.Response.Headers.Add("WWW-Authenticate",
                                               "Basic Scheme=‘eLearning‘ location=‘http://localhost:8323/APITest‘");

        }
    }
}
APIAuthorizeAttribute

 

  2、添加验证方法类APIAuthorizeInfoValidate.cs

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using Newtonsoft.Json;
/* ==============================================================================
   * 功能描述:APIAuthorizeInfoValidate  
   * 创 建 者:Zouqj
   * 创建日期:2015/11/3 16:26:10
   ==============================================================================*/
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Web;

namespace Uuch.HP.WebAPI.Helper
{
    public class APIAuthorizeInfo
    {
        public string UserName { get; set; }
        public string Key { get; set; }
    }
    public class APIAuthorizeInfoValidate
    {
        public static bool ValidateApi(string username, string key, string ip)
        {
            var _APIAuthorizeInfo = JsonConvert.DeserializeObject <List<APIAuthorizeInfo>>(WebConfigHelper.ApiAuthorize);
            var ips = WebConfigHelper.IPs.Contains(",") ? WebConfigHelper.IPs.Split(‘,‘) : new string[] { WebConfigHelper.IPs };

            if (_APIAuthorizeInfo != null && _APIAuthorizeInfo.Count > 0)
            {
                foreach (var v in _APIAuthorizeInfo)
                {
                    if (v.UserName == username && v.Key == key && ips.Contains(ip))
                    {
                        return true;
                    }
                }
            }
            return false;
        }
    }
}
APIAuthorizeInfo

 

  3、把添加到全局过滤器中,这里要注意了,不要添加到FilterConfig.cs,而要添加到WebApiConfig.cs,因为FilterConfig是MVC用的,我们这里是WebAPI。

技术分享技术分享
public static class WebApiConfig
    {
        public static void Register(HttpConfiguration config)
        {
            config.Routes.MapHttpRoute(
                name: "DefaultApi",
                routeTemplate: "api/{controller}/{id}",
                defaults: new { id = RouteParameter.Optional }
            );
            config.Filters.Add(new APIAuthorizeAttribute());
        }
    }
WebApiConfig

 

使用C#来调用WebAPI

以下用到的几个类,已经封装好了,可以直接使用。

 

1、新建webAPI站点,然后新建控制器RProducts

 

技术分享技术分享
public class RProductsController : ApiController
    {
        /// <summary>
        /// 备案商品回执记录回调接口
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="lst"></param>
        /// <returns></returns>
        public int Put(List<RProduct> lst)
        {
            return ReceiptInfo.UpdateReceiptProductInfo(lst);
        }
    }
RProductsController

 

2、新建类WebApiClient.cs

 

技术分享技术分享
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Net;
using System.Net.Http;
using System.Net.Http.Headers;
using System.Text;
using DBHelper.Entitys;

namespace DBHelper
{
    public static class WebApiClient<T>
    {
        static void SetBasicAuthorization(HttpClient client)
        {
            HttpRequestHeaders header=client.DefaultRequestHeaders;
            string user = ConfigHelper.UserName;
            string key = ConfigHelper.Key;
            Encoding encoding = Encoding.UTF8;
            // Add an Accept header for JSON format.
            // 为JSON格式添加一个Accept报头
            client.DefaultRequestHeaders.Accept.Add(new MediaTypeWithQualityHeaderValue("application/json"));
           
            //Base64编码
            var data = Convert.ToBase64String(encoding.GetBytes(user + ":" + key));
            //设置AuthenticationHeaderValue
            header.Authorization = new AuthenticationHeaderValue("Basic", data);
            //通过HttpRequestHeaders.Add
            //header.Add("Authorization", "Basic " + data);
        }
        public static List<T> GetAll(string url)
        {
            List<T> li = new List<T>();
            HttpClient client = new HttpClient();
            SetBasicAuthorization(client);
            // List all products.
            // 列出所有产品
            HttpResponseMessage response = client.GetAsync(url).Result;// Blocking call(阻塞调用)! 
            if (response.IsSuccessStatusCode)
            {
                // Parse the response body. Blocking!
                // 解析响应体。阻塞!
                li = response.Content.ReadAsAsync<List<T>>().Result;
            }
            else
            {
                Console.WriteLine("{0} ({1})", (int)response.StatusCode, response.ReasonPhrase);
            }
            return li;
        }

        public static T GetByFilter(string url)
        {
            T entity = default(T);
            HttpClient client = new HttpClient();
            SetBasicAuthorization(client);
            // List all products.
            // 列出所有产品
            HttpResponseMessage response = client.GetAsync(url).Result;// Blocking call(阻塞调用)! 
            if (response.IsSuccessStatusCode)
            {
                // Parse the response body. Blocking!
                // 解析响应体。阻塞!
                entity = response.Content.ReadAsAsync<T>().Result;
            }
            return entity;
        }

        public static T Get(string url,string id)
        {
            T entity=default(T);
            HttpClient client = new HttpClient();
            SetBasicAuthorization(client);
            // List all products.
            // 列出所有产品
            HttpResponseMessage response = client.GetAsync(string.Format("{0}/{1}",url,id)).Result;// Blocking call(阻塞调用)! 
            if (response.IsSuccessStatusCode)
            {
                // Parse the response body. Blocking!
                // 解析响应体。阻塞!
                entity = response.Content.ReadAsAsync<T>().Result;
            }
            return entity;
        }

        public static bool Edit(string url,List<int> value)
        {         
            HttpClient client = new HttpClient();
            SetBasicAuthorization(client);
            var response = client.PutAsJsonAsync(url,value).Result;
            if (response.IsSuccessStatusCode)
            {              
                return true;
            }
            else
            {
                return false;
            }
        }
        public static bool Edit(string url, Dictionary<int, string> dic)
        {
            HttpClient client = new HttpClient();
            SetBasicAuthorization(client);
            var response = client.PutAsJsonAsync(url, dic).Result;
            if (response.IsSuccessStatusCode)
            {
                return true;
            }
            else
            {
                return false;
            }
        }
        public static bool EditModel(string url, List<T> value)
        {
            HttpClient client = new HttpClient();
            SetBasicAuthorization(client);
            var response = client.PutAsJsonAsync(url, value).Result;
            if (response.IsSuccessStatusCode)
            {
                return true;
            }
            else
            {
                return false;
            }
        }

        public static List<TI> GetList<TI>(string url, List<int> value)
        {
            List<TI> list = new List<TI>();
            HttpClient client = new HttpClient();
            SetBasicAuthorization(client);
            var response = client.PostAsJsonAsync(url, value).Result;
            if (response.IsSuccessStatusCode)
            {
                list = response.Content.ReadAsAsync<List<TI>>().Result;                
            }
            else
            {
                list = new List<TI>();
            }
            return list;
        }
    }
}
DBHelper

 

3、新建类BaseEntity.cs

 

技术分享技术分享
using NHibernate;
using NHibernate.Criterion;
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Configuration;
using System.Data.Common;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text;

namespace DBHelper
{
    public abstract class BaseEntity<T, TID> where T : BaseEntity<T, TID>
    {
        #region 属性
        /// <summary>
        /// 编号
        /// </summary>
        public string V_PreInvtId { get; set; }
        /// <summary>
        /// 回执状态
        /// </summary>
        public int V_OpResult { get; set; }
        /// <summary>
        /// 操作时间
        /// </summary>
        public DateTime D_optime { get; set; }
        /// <summary>
        /// 备注
        /// </summary>
        public string V_NoteS { get; set; }
        #endregion
        public virtual TID ID { get; set; }

        #region
        /// <summary>
        /// Session配置文件路径
        /// </summary>
        protected static readonly string SessionFactoryConfigPath = System.IO.Path.Combine(AppDomain.CurrentDomain.BaseDirectory, "NHibernate.config");

        /// <summary>
        /// 返回对应的Session.
        /// </summary>
        protected static ISession NHibernateSession
        {
            get
            {
                return NHibernateSessionManager.Instance.GetSessionFrom(SessionFactoryConfigPath);
            }
        }
        #endregion

        #region common
        /// <summary>
        /// 根据ID从数据库获取一个类型为T的实例
        /// </summary>
        public static T GetById(TID id, bool shouldLock)
        {
            T entity;

            if (shouldLock)
            {
                entity = NHibernateSession.Get<T>(id, LockMode.Upgrade);
            }
            else
            {
                entity = NHibernateSession.Get<T>(id);
            }

            return entity;
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// 根据ID从数据库获取一个类型为T的实例
        /// </summary>
        public static T GetById(TID id)
        {
            return GetById(id, false);
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// 获取所有的类型为T的对象
        /// </summary>
        public static IList<T> GetAll()
        {
            return GetByCriteria();
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// 根据给定的 <see cref="ICriterion" /> 来查询结果
        /// 如果没有传入 <see cref="ICriterion" />, 效果与 <see cref="GetAll" />一致.
        /// </summary>
        public static IList<T> GetByCriteria(params ICriterion[] criterion)
        {
            ICriteria criteria = NHibernateSession.CreateCriteria(typeof(T));

            foreach (ICriterion criterium in criterion)
            {
                criteria.Add(criterium);
            }
            criteria.AddOrder(new Order("ID", false));
            return criteria.List<T>();
        }
        #endregion

        #region entity
        /// <summary>
        /// 根据exampleInstance的属性值来查找对象,返回与其值一样的对象对表。
        /// exampleInstance中值为0或NULL的属性将不做为查找条件
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="exampleInstance">参考对象</param>
        /// <param name="propertiesToExclude">要排除的查询条件属性名</param>
        /// <returns></returns>
        public virtual IList<T> GetByExample(T exampleInstance, params string[] propertiesToExclude)
        {
            ICriteria criteria = NHibernateSession.CreateCriteria(exampleInstance.GetType());
            Example example = Example.Create(exampleInstance);

            foreach (string propertyToExclude in propertiesToExclude)
            {
                example.ExcludeProperty(propertyToExclude);
            }
            example.ExcludeNone();
            example.ExcludeNulls();
            example.ExcludeZeroes();
            criteria.Add(example);
            criteria.AddOrder(new Order("ID", false));
            return criteria.List<T>();
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// 使用<see cref="GetByExample"/>来返回一个唯一的结果,如果结果不唯一会抛出异常
        /// </summary>
        /// <exception cref="NonUniqueResultException" />
        public virtual T GetUniqueByExample(T exampleInstance, params string[] propertiesToExclude)
        {
            IList<T> foundList = GetByExample(exampleInstance, propertiesToExclude);

            if (foundList.Count > 1)
            {
                throw new NonUniqueResultException(foundList.Count);
            }

            if (foundList.Count > 0)
            {
                return foundList[0];
            }
            else
            {
                return default(T);
            }
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// 将指定的对象保存到数据库,并立限提交,并返回更新后的ID
        /// See http://www.hibernate.org/hib_docs/reference/en/html/mapping.html#mapping-declaration-id-assigned.
        /// </summary>
        //public virtual T Save()
        //{
        //    T entity = (T)this;
        //    NHibernateSession.Save(entity);
        //    NHibernateSession.Flush();
        //    return entity;
        //}

        /// <summary>
        /// 将指定的对象保存或更新到数据库,并返回更新后的ID
        /// </summary>
        //public virtual T Merge()
        //{
        //    T entity = (T)this;
        //    NHibernateSession.Merge<T>(entity);
        //    NHibernateSession.Flush();
        //    return entity;
        //}

        ///// <summary>
        ///// 从数据库中删除指定的对象
        ///// </summary>
        //public virtual void Delete()
        //{
        //    T entity = (T)this;
        //    NHibernateSession.Delete(entity);
        //    NHibernateSession.Flush();
        //}

        public virtual DbTransaction BeginTransaction()
        {
            ITransaction tran = NHibernateSession.BeginTransaction();// NHibernateSessionManager.Instance.BeginTransactionOn(SessionFactoryConfigPath);
            return new DbTransaction(tran);
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// 提交所有的事务对象,并Flush到数据库
        /// </summary>
        public virtual void CommitChanges()
        {
            if (NHibernateSessionManager.Instance.HasOpenTransactionOn(SessionFactoryConfigPath))
            {
                NHibernateSessionManager.Instance.CommitTransactionOn(SessionFactoryConfigPath);
            }
            else
            {
                // 如果不是事务模式,就直接调用Flush来更新                
                NHibernateSession.Flush();
            }
        }
        #endregion

        #region WebApi获取数据
        public static string Url
        {
            get 
            {
                string url = System.Configuration.ConfigurationManager.AppSettings[typeof(T).Name];
                if (string.IsNullOrEmpty(url))
                {
                    throw new Exception(string.Format("“{0}”未包含URL配置", typeof(T).Name));
                }
                return url;
            }
        }

        public static List<T> GetAllBySource()
        {
            return WebApiClient<T>.GetAll(Url);
        }

        public static void EditBySource(List<int> value)
        {
            WebApiClient<T>.Edit(Url, value);
        }
        public static void EditBySource(Dictionary<int, string> dic)
        {
            WebApiClient<T>.Edit(Url, dic);
        }
        public static T GetOneBySource(string id)
        {
            return WebApiClient<T>.Get(Url, id);
        }
        public static void EditBySourceByModel(List<T> value)
        {
            WebApiClient<T>.EditModel(Url, value);
        }
        #endregion
    }

    public class DbTransaction : IDisposable
    {
        ITransaction _transaction;

        public DbTransaction(ITransaction transaction)
        {

            _transaction = transaction;
        }

        #region IDisposable 成员

        public void Dispose()
        {
            Dispose(true);
            GC.SuppressFinalize(this);
        }

        protected virtual void Dispose(bool disposing)
        {
            if (disposing)
            {
                _transaction.Dispose();
                _transaction = null;
            }
        }

        #endregion

        #region ITransaction 成员

        public void Begin(System.Data.IsolationLevel isolationLevel)
        {
            _transaction.Begin(isolationLevel);
        }

        public void Begin()
        {
            _transaction.Begin();
        }

        public void Commit()
        {
            _transaction.Commit();
        }

        public void Enlist(System.Data.IDbCommand command)
        {
            _transaction.Enlist(command);
        }

        public bool IsActive
        {
            get { return _transaction.IsActive; }
        }

        public void RegisterSynchronization(NHibernate.Transaction.ISynchronization synchronization)
        {
            _transaction.RegisterSynchronization(synchronization);
        }

        public void Rollback()
        {
            _transaction.Rollback();
        }

        public bool WasCommitted
        {
            get { return _transaction.WasCommitted; }
        }

        public bool WasRolledBack
        {
            get { return _transaction.WasRolledBack; }
        }

        #endregion
    }
}
BaseEntity

 

4、调用代码:

       List<EProducts> list = DBHelper.Entitys.EProducts.GetAllBySource();

 

在调用WebAPI之前,记得先运行WebAPI站点。

当我们的WebAPI站点开发完成之后,我们可以使用Nuget安装一个插件自动生成API文档,这个插件同时还支持WebAPI在线测试的。

 

技术分享

ASP.NET MVC——学习WebAPI

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