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Mac上Homebrew的使用——Homebrew 使 OS X 更完整

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0 Homebrew是啥?

“Homebrew installs the stuff you need that Apple didn’t.——Homebrew 使 OS X 更完整”。 

Homebrew的官网[1](多语言版本)简单明了地介绍了如何安装和使用这个工具,并提供了自己的Wiki。

 

1 安装Homebrew 

brew的安装很简单,使用一条ruby命令即可,Mac系统上已经默认安装了ruby。

gerryyang@mba :bin$ruby --version
ruby 2.0.0p247 (2013-06-27 revision 41674) [universal.x86_64-darwin13]

关于安装brew的详细说明可以参考其github上的wiki说明[2]

"
Installation

The suggested and easiest way to install Homebrew is on the homepage. We don’t duplicate it here because it is asecurity risk to list it on a user-editable wiki. 

The standard script installs Homebrew to/usr/localso that you don’t need sudo when youbrew install. It is acareful script, it can be run even if you have stuff installed to/usr/localalready. It tells you exactly what it will do before itdoes it too. And you have to confirm everything it will do before itstarts. 

There are other ways to install Homebrew which provide you with moreflexibility. They are listed below the requirements. 


  1. gerryyang@mba :~$ruby -e "$(curl -fsSL https://raw.github.com/Homebrew/homebrew/go/install)"  
  2. It appears Homebrew is already installed. If your intent is to reinstall you  
  3. should do the following before running this installer again:  
  4.   
  5.     rm -rf /usr/local/Cellar /usr/local/.git && brew cleanup  


由于我的系统上已经安装过brew,因此再次执行安装命令会提示我brew已经存在。

 

 

2 Homebrew的用法 

查看brew的具体用法:

  1. gerryyang@mba :~$brew  
  2. Example usage:  
  3.   brew [info | home | options ] [FORMULA...]  
  4.   brew install FORMULA...  
  5.   brew uninstall FORMULA...  
  6.   brew search [foo]  
  7.   brew list [FORMULA...]  
  8.   brew update  
  9.   brew upgrade [FORMULA...]  
  10.   brew pin/unpin [FORMULA...]  
  11.   
  12. Troubleshooting:  
  13.   brew doctor  
  14.   brew install -vd FORMULA  
  15.   brew [--env | --config]  
  16.   
  17. Brewing:  
  18.   brew create [URL [--no-fetch]]  
  19.   brew edit [FORMULA...]  
  20.   open https://github.com/Homebrew/homebrew/wiki/Formula-Cookbook  
  21.   
  22. Further help:  
  23.   man brew  
  24.   brew home  
  25.   
  26. gerryyang@mba :~$  

 

 

3 Homebrew的有趣问题

下面关于Homebrew的一些常见问题[3]

(1) 在OS X中找不到想要的软件,可以使用brew安装;

  1. gerryyang@mba :~$brew install wget  
  2. ==> Downloading http://ftpmirror.gnu.org/wget/wget-1.14.tar.gz  
  3. ######################################################################## 100.0%  
  4. ==> ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/Cellar/wget/1.14 --sysconfdir=/usr/local/etc  
  5. ==> make install  
  6. Warning: Could not link wget. Unlinking...  
  7. Error: The `brew link` step did not complete successfully  
  8. The formula built, but is not symlinked into /usr/local  
  9. You can try again using `brew link wget‘  
  10.   
  11. Possible conflicting files are:  
  12. /usr/local/bin/wget  
  13. /usr/local/share/man/man1/wget.1  
  14. ==> Summary  
  15. <span style="font: 13.0px Monaco">/usr/local/Cellar/wget/1.14: 8 files, 688K, built in 2.3 minutes</span>   

由于之前使用源码方式安装过wget,因此再用brew安装时会提示冲突的错误,因为/usr/locat/bin/wget已经存在。实际上,Homebrew 将软件包分装到单独的目录(/usr/local/Cellar),然后 symlink 到 /usr/local 中。 

(2) 如何更新本地已安装的package呢?

第一步:先更新brew:

brew update 

  1. [email protected]:bin$brew update  
  2. Already up-to-date.  


第二步:更新所有package: 
brew upgarde 

  1. [email protected]:bin$brew upgrade  
  2. ==> Upgrading 1 outdated package, with result:  
  3. wget 1.15  
  4. ==> Upgrading wget  
  5. ==> Installing wget dependency: openssl  
  6. ==> Downloading https://downloads.sf.net/project/machomebrew/Bottles/openssl-1.0  
  7. ######################################################################## 100.0%  
  8. ==> Pouring openssl-1.0.1f.mavericks.bottle.tar.gz  
  9. ==> Caveats  
  10. This formula is keg-only, so it was not symlinked into /usr/local.  
  11.   
  12. Mac OS X already provides this software and installing another version in  
  13. parallel can cause all kinds of trouble.  
  14.   
  15. The OpenSSL provided by OS X is too old for some software.  
  16.   
  17. Generally there are no consequences of this for you. If you build your  
  18. own software and it requires this formula, you‘ll need to add to your  
  19. build variables:  
  20.   
  21.     LDFLAGS:  -L/usr/local/opt/openssl/lib  
  22.     CPPFLAGS: -I/usr/local/opt/openssl/include  
  23.   
  24. ==> security find-certificate -a -p /Library/Keychains/System.keychain > ‘/usr/l  
  25. ==> security find-certificate -a -p /System/Library/Keychains/SystemRootCertific  
  26. ==> mv -f /usr/local/etc/openssl/osx_cert.pem.tmp /usr/local/etc/openssl/osx_cer  
  27. ==> Summary  
  28. /usr/local/Cellar/openssl/1.0.1f: 429 files, 15M  
  29. ==> Installing wget  
  30. ==> Downloading http://ftpmirror.gnu.org/wget/wget-1.15.tar.gz  
  31. ######################################################################## 100.0%  
  32. ==> ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/Cellar/wget/1.15 --sysconfdir=/usr/local/etc --with-ssl=openssl --with-libssl-prefix=/usr/local/opt/openssl --disable-iri  
  33. ==> make install  
  34. Warning: Could not link wget. Unlinking...  
  35. Error: The `brew link` step did not complete successfully  
  36. The formula built, but is not symlinked into /usr/local  
  37. You can try again using `brew link wget‘  
  38.   
  39. Possible conflicting files are:  
  40. /usr/local/bin/wget  
  41. /usr/local/share/man/man1/wget.1  
  42. ==> Summary  
  43. /usr/local/Cellar/wget/1.15: 8 files, 700K, built in 73 seconds  
  44. [email protected]:bin$  

 

(3) 如何删除Homebrew?

If you installed to/usr/localthen you can use the script in thisgist to uninstall — it will onlyremove Homebrew and the stuff Homebrew installed leaving anything elsein/usr/localalone. 

Provided you haven’t put anything else in Homebrew’s prefix(brew --prefix), you can generally justrm -rfthat directory. Thisis because Homebrew won’t touch files outside its prefix. 


(4) Homebrew下载的package存放的路径在哪里? 

  1. [email protected]:bin$brew --cache  
  2. /Library/Caches/Homebrew  
  3. [email protected]:bin$ls /Library/Caches/Homebrew/  
  4. Formula/                                wget-1.14.tar.gz  
  5. coreutils-8.22.tar.xz                  wget-1.15.tar.gz  
  6. openssl-1.0.1f.mavericks.bottle.tar.gz  xz-5.0.5.mavericks.bottle.2.tar.gz  
  7. [email protected]:bin$ls /Library/Caches/Homebrew/Formula/  
  8. coreutils.brewing  openssl.brewing  wget.brewing  xz.brewing  
  9.   
  10. [email protected]:bin$  

(5) 我可以安装自己的stuff在/usr/local吗?

Yes, brew is designed to not get in your way so you can use it how youlike. 

Install your own stuff, but be aware that if you install commonlibraries, like libexpat yourself, it may cause trouble when trying tobuild certain Homebrew formula. As a resultbrew doctorwill warn youabout this. 

Thus it’s probably better to install your own stuff to the Cellar andthenbrew linkit. Like so: 

$ cd foo-0.1 $ brew diy
./configure —prefix=/usr/local/Cellar/foo/0.1 $ ./configure —prefix=/usr/local/Cellar/foo/0.1 [snip] $ make && make install $ brew link foo
Linking /usr/local/Cellar/foo/0.1… 17 symlinks created

在我的环境上检测是这样的: 

  1. [email protected]:bin$brew doctor  
  2. Warning: Unbrewed dylibs were found in /usr/local/lib.  
  3. If you didn‘t put them there on purpose they could cause problems when  
  4. building Homebrew formulae, and may need to be deleted.  
  5.   
  6. Unexpected dylibs:  
  7.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_atomic.dylib  
  8.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_chrono.dylib  
  9.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_context.dylib  
  10.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_date_time.dylib  
  11.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_filesystem.dylib  
  12.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_graph.dylib  
  13.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_iostreams.dylib  
  14.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_locale.dylib  
  15.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_log.dylib  
  16.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_math_c99.dylib  
  17.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_math_c99f.dylib  
  18.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_math_c99l.dylib  
  19.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_math_tr1.dylib  
  20.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_math_tr1f.dylib  
  21.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_math_tr1l.dylib  
  22.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_prg_exec_monitor.dylib  
  23.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_program_options.dylib  
  24.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_python.dylib  
  25.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_random.dylib  
  26.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_regex.dylib  
  27.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_serialization.dylib  
  28.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_signals.dylib  
  29.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_system.dylib  
  30.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_thread.dylib  
  31.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_timer.dylib  
  32.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_unit_test_framework.dylib  
  33.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_wave.dylib  
  34.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_wserialization.dylib  
  35.   
  36. Warning: Unbrewed static libraries were found in /usr/local/lib.  
  37. If you didn‘t put them there on purpose they could cause problems when  
  38. building Homebrew formulae, and may need to be deleted.  
  39.   
  40. Unexpected static libraries:  
  41.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_atomic.a  
  42.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_chrono.a  
  43.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_context.a  
  44.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_coroutine.a  
  45.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_date_time.a  
  46.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_exception.a  
  47.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_filesystem.a  
  48.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_graph.a  
  49.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_iostreams.a  
  50.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_locale.a  
  51.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_log.a  
  52.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_math_c99.a  
  53.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_math_c99f.a  
  54.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_math_c99l.a  
  55.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_math_tr1.a  
  56.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_math_tr1f.a  
  57.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_math_tr1l.a  
  58.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_prg_exec_monitor.a  
  59.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_program_options.a  
  60.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_python.a  
  61.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_random.a  
  62.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_regex.a  
  63.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_serialization.a  
  64.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_signals.a  
  65.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_system.a  
  66.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_test_exec_monitor.a  
  67.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_thread.a  
  68.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_timer.a  
  69.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_unit_test_framework.a  
  70.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_wave.a  
  71.     /usr/local/lib/libboost_wserialization.a  
  72.   
  73. Warning: You have unlinked kegs in your Cellar  
  74. Leaving kegs unlinked can lead to build-trouble and cause brews that depend on  
  75. those kegs to fail to run properly once built. Run `brew link` on these:  
  76.   
  77.     wget  
  78. [email protected]:bin$  

 

(6) 为什么选择Homebrew这个名字?
mxcl was too concerned with the beer theme and didn’t consider that the project may actually prove popular. By the time he realized it was too late. However, today, the first google hit for “homebrew” is not beer related ;-)


(7) 关于更多地QA可以参考Homebrew的Wiki[4]

 

(8) 一些常用安装推荐 

  1. [email protected]:bin$brew list  
  2. coreutils  openssl  wget  xz  

Introduction to Coreutils 

The GNU Core Utilities are the basic file, shell and text manipulationutilities of the GNU operating system.
These are the core utilitieswhich are expected to exist on every operating system. 

http://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/

 

4 参考

[1] http://brew.sh/index_zh-cn.html

[2] https://github.com/Homebrew/homebrew/wiki/Installation

[3] https://github.com/Homebrew/homebrew/wiki/FAQ

[4] https://github.com/Homebrew/homebrew/wiki

Mac上Homebrew的使用——Homebrew 使 OS X 更完整

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