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mysql小白系列_13 Online DDL

时间:2018-03-13 23:49:47      阅读:171      评论:0      收藏:0      [点我收藏+]

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Online DDL:

一.FIC之前的添加删除二级索引:
  • 1.首先创建临时表,定义目标新表的选项和索引
  • 2.逐行拷贝数据到临时表
  • 3.插入行时更新索引信息
  • 4.数据全部被拷贝到新表后,删除旧表,rename新表

为保证数据一致性,旧表复制数据到新表的全程只允许读,不允许改

二.5.1 5.5FIC新特性 fast index creation
  • 1.创建二级索引给表加上共享S锁
  • 2.创建过程不需要重建表
  • 3.删除二级索引只需要更新内部视图,并标记索引的空间可用,去除数据库元数据的关于该索引的定义

依然只能读,不允许改,但加快了修改索引的速度
因为聚簇索引的特性,主键索引修改依然需要通过旧方式copy table过程

三.5.6之后
  • 1.之前FIC只对二级索引创建删除有效,5.6之后将此特性扩展到添加列、删除列,修改列类型、列重命名、设置默认值

Online DDL选项

索引的copy与inplace创建

一.ALGORITHM=COPY
  • 1.新建带索引(主键索引)的临时表
  • 2.将原表锁定,禁止DML操作,只允许select查询
  • 3.将原表数据拷贝到临时表
  • 4.禁止读写,进行rename,升级字典锁
  • 5.完成创建索引操作

需要记录undo和redo,效率不如inplace,短期占用buffer pool,影响性能

二.ALGORITHM=INPLACE
  • 1.创建索引(二级索引,主键+普通字段)数据字典
  • 2.加表共享锁S,禁止DML,允许select查询
  • 3.读取聚簇索引,构造新的索引项,排序并插入新索引
  • 5.等待打开当前表的所有只读事务提交
  • 6.创建索引结束

避免重建表带来的IO和CPU消耗,保证DDL期间的性能和并发

三.ALGORITHM=DEFAULT
  • 1.alter table后面什么都不加的时候,默认是这个方式
  • 2.如果old_alter_table为OFF,默认就是inplace方式
  • 3.inplace不支持则进行copy
四.lock选项

控制是否锁表,根据不同的DDL操作类型表现不同,mysql原则是尽量不锁表,但是修改主键这样的昂贵操作不得不锁表

  • 1.LOCK=NONE,允许DDL期间并发读写涉及的表,显式指定时,当不支持对该表的继续写入,则alter语句失败,是ALGORITHM=COPY的默认lock级别
  • 2.LOCK=SHARED,DDL期间表上的写操作会被阻塞,但是不影响select
  • 3.LOCK=DEFAULT,让mysql自己判断lock模式,原则是尽量不锁表
  • 4.LOCK=EXCLUSIVE,DDL期间该表不可用,堵塞任何读写请求,使用场景:
    • 最短时间内完成
    • 短时间表不可用能刚接受

注意:

  • 1.任何模式下,online DDL开始之前都需要一个短时间的排它锁X来准备环境
  • 2.当alter命令发出后,会首先等待该表上的其他操作完成
  • 3.alter命令之后的其他请求会出现等待MDL锁
  • 4.alter完成之前,其他DDL也会被阻塞一小段时间?

https://www.cnblogs.com/zengkefu/p/5674945.html


ddl实现细节

Prepare阶段
  • 1.创建frm文件
  • 2.持有exclusive-mdl锁,禁止读写,速度非常快
  • 3.根据alter类型,确定执行方式,检查存储引擎是否支持inplace,不支持则使用copy---copy,online-rebuild:重新组织表,online-norebuild:改数据字典即可
  • 4.更新数据字典的内存对象
  • 5.分配row_log对象记录增量,记录DDL期间数据修改的日志,如果日志量超过参数 innodb_online_alter_log_max_size 的上限,则DDL失败
  • 6.生成临时ibd文件(rebuild类型)
ddl执行阶段
  • 1.降级exclusvie-mdl锁,允许读写
  • 2.扫描原表的聚簇索引每条记录
  • 3.遍历新表的聚簇索引和二级索引,逐一处理
  • 4.根据记录构造对应的索引项
  • 5.将构造索引项插入sort_buffer块进行排序
  • 6.将sort_buffer块中的排序结果插入新的索引
  • 7.处理ddl执行过程中产生的增量-row-log,rebuild类型需要
commit阶段
  • 1.升级到exclusive-mdl索引,禁止读写
  • 2.应用最后row_log中产生的日志
  • 3.更新innodb的数据字典
  • 4.提交事务-刷数据的redo日志
  • 5.修改统计信息
  • 6.rename临时ibd文件,frm文件
  • 7.变更完成

http://blog.itpub.net/22664653/viewspace-2056953 技术分享图片


DDL SQL组合使用

1.全部变更写到一条sql里面
alter table t1 add index idx1(c1),add unique index idx2(c2),change c4_old_name c4_new_name integer unsigned;

copy方式下,效率最高,只需要拷贝1次

2.每个变更一条sql
alter table t1 add index idx1(c1);
alter table t1 add unique index idx2(c2);
alter table t1 change c4_old_name c4_new_name integer unsigned not null;

测试

1.显式开启一个查询事务,默认DDL并不好?理论与实际不一样
  • session1
mysql session 1 >use db1;
Database changed
mysql session 1 >begin;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql session 1 >select * from t1;
+------+------+
| id   | name |
+------+------+
|    1 | yzw  |
+------+------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

mysql session 1 >

开始一个事务,执行简单查询

  • session2
mysql session 2 >use db1
Database changed
mysql session 2 >alter table t1 add index idx_id(id);
Query OK, 0 rows affected (9 min 47.09 sec)
Records: 0  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

被阻塞9分47.09秒

  • session3
mysql session 3 >use db1;
Database changed
mysql session 3 >select * from t1;
+------+------+
| id   | name |
+------+------+
|    1 | yzw  |
+------+------+
1 row in set (9 min 37.60 sec)


被阻塞9分37.60秒

  • session4
mysql session 4 >mysql session 4 >show processlist;
+----+------+--------------------+------+------------------+--------+---------------------------------------------------------------+-------------------------------------+
| Id | User | Host               | db   | Command          | Time   | State                                                         | Info                                |
+----+------+--------------------+------+------------------+--------+---------------------------------------------------------------+-------------------------------------+
| 47 | repl | 172.16.3.154:42173 | NULL | Binlog Dump GTID | 432908 | Master has sent all binlog to slave; waiting for more updates | NULL                                |
| 48 | repl | 172.16.3.153:57245 | NULL | Binlog Dump GTID | 432806 | Master has sent all binlog to slave; waiting for more updates | NULL                                |
| 53 | mha  | 172.16.3.152:43681 | NULL | Sleep            |      0 |                                                               | NULL                                |
| 67 | root | localhost          | db1  | Query            |     23 | Waiting for table metadata lock                               | alter table t1 add index idx_id(id) |
| 68 | root | localhost          | db1  | Query            |     14 | Waiting for table metadata lock                               | select * from t1                    |
| 69 | root | localhost          | NULL | Query            |      0 | starting                                                      | show processlist                    |
| 70 | root | localhost          | db1  | Sleep            |     36 |                                                               | NULL                                |
+----+------+--------------------+------+------------------+--------+---------------------------------------------------------------+-------------------------------------+
7 rows in set (0.00 sec)

session2的alter和session3的select被阻塞
都在等待MDL锁 alter

2.第二个加了算法,时间更长,dml并发更好?理论与实际不一样
  • session1
mysql session 1 >begin;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql session 1 >select * from t1;
+------+------+
| id   | name |
+------+------+
|    1 | yzw  |
+------+------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

开启一个事务

  • session2
mysql session 2 >use db1
Database changed
mysql session 2 >alter table t1 add index idx_id(id), algorithm=inplace,lock=none;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (9 min 34.48 sec)
Records: 0  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

显示指定inplace方式增加索引

  • session3
mysql session 3 >use db1;
Database changed
mysql session 3 >select * from t1;
+------+------+
| id   | name |
+------+------+
|    1 | yzw  |
+------+------+
1 row in set (9 min 22.13 sec)

查询被阻塞

  • session4
mysql session 4 >show processlist;
+----+------+--------------------+------+------------------+--------+---------------------------------------------------------------+------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Id | User | Host               | db   | Command          | Time   | State                                                         | Info                                                             |
+----+------+--------------------+------+------------------+--------+---------------------------------------------------------------+------------------------------------------------------------------+
| 47 | repl | 172.16.3.154:42173 | NULL | Binlog Dump GTID | 500684 | Master has sent all binlog to slave; waiting for more updates | NULL                                                             |
| 48 | repl | 172.16.3.153:57245 | NULL | Binlog Dump GTID | 500582 | Master has sent all binlog to slave; waiting for more updates | NULL                                                             |
| 53 | mha  | 172.16.3.152:43681 | NULL | Sleep            |      1 |                                                               | NULL                                                             |
| 71 | root | localhost          | db1  | Sleep            |     45 |                                                               | NULL                                                             |
| 72 | root | localhost          | db1  | Query            |     20 | Waiting for table metadata lock                               | alter table t1 add index idx_id(id), algorithm=inplace,lock=none |
| 73 | root | localhost          | db1  | Query            |      7 | Waiting for table metadata lock                               | select * from t1                                                 |
| 74 | root | localhost          | NULL | Query            |      0 | starting                                                      | show processlist                                                 |
+----+------+--------------------+------+------------------+--------+---------------------------------------------------------------+------------------------------------------------------------------+
7 rows in set (0.00 sec)

等待MDL锁

3.原有copy方式DDL
1.构造测试数据
sysbench --test=insert.lua --oltp-table-size=5000000 --mysql-table-engine=innodb --mysql-user=root --mysql-password=123456 --mysql-port=3306 --mysql-host=localhost --mysql-db=test --max-requests=0 --time=60 --oltp-tables-count=2 --report-interval=10 --threads=2 prepare
2.使用原有copy方式进行ddl
mysql session 1 >select version();
+------------+
| version()  |
+------------+
| 5.7.16-log |
+------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

mysql session 1 >show create table sbtest1
    -> ;
+---------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Table   | Create Table                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           |
+---------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| sbtest1 | CREATE TABLE `sbtest1` (
  `id` int(10) unsigned NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
  `k` int(10) unsigned NOT NULL DEFAULT ‘0‘,
  `c` char(120) NOT NULL DEFAULT ‘‘,
  `pad` char(60) NOT NULL DEFAULT ‘‘,
  PRIMARY KEY (`id`),
  KEY `k_1` (`k`)
) ENGINE=InnoDB AUTO_INCREMENT=5000001 DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8 MAX_ROWS=1000000 |
+---------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

mysql session 1 >show variables like ‘%old_alter_table%‘;
+-----------------+-------+
| Variable_name   | Value |
+-----------------+-------+
| old_alter_table | OFF   |
+-----------------+-------+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)

mysql session 1 >set global old_alter_table=on;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql session 1 >show variables like ‘old_alter_table‘;
+-----------------+-------+
| Variable_name   | Value |
+-----------------+-------+
| old_alter_table | OFF   |
+-----------------+-------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

mysql session 1 >set old_alter_table=1;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql session 1 >show variables like ‘old_alter_table‘;
+-----------------+-------+
| Variable_name   | Value |
+-----------------+-------+
| old_alter_table | ON    |
+-----------------+-------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

mysql session 1 >show index from sbtest1;
+---------+------------+----------+--------------+-------------+-----------+-------------+----------+--------+------+------------+---------+---------------+
| Table   | Non_unique | Key_name | Seq_in_index | Column_name | Collation | Cardinality | Sub_part | Packed | Null | Index_type | Comment | Index_comment |
+---------+------------+----------+--------------+-------------+-----------+-------------+----------+--------+------+------------+---------+---------------+
| sbtest1 |          0 | PRIMARY  |            1 | id          | A         |     4804854 |     NULL | NULL   |      | BTREE      |         |               |
| sbtest1 |          1 | k_1      |            1 | k           | A         |      883154 |     NULL | NULL   |      | BTREE      |         |               |
+---------+------------+----------+--------------+-------------+-----------+-------------+----------+--------+------+------------+---------+---------------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)
2.删除增加索引

会触发copy操作,并在数据目录产生临时frm和ibd文件
其他DML会被阻塞,请求MDL锁

  • session1
mysql session 1 >alter table sbtest1 drop index k_1;
Query OK, 5000000 rows affected (55.42 sec)
Records: 5000000  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

mysql session 1 >alter table sbtest1 add index k_1(k);
Query OK, 5000000 rows affected (1 min 20.26 sec)
Records: 5000000  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0
  • session2
mysql session 2 >update sbtest1 set k=2496416 where id=1;
Query OK, 1 row affected (14.39 sec)
Rows matched: 1  Changed: 1  Warnings: 0

mysql session 2 >update sbtest1 set k=2496417 where id=1; 
Query OK, 1 row affected (1 min 12.48 sec)
Rows matched: 1  Changed: 1  Warnings: 0
  • session3
+-----+------+--------------------+------+------------------+--------+---------------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| Id  | User | Host               | db   | Command          | Time   | State                                                         | Info                                    |
+-----+------+--------------------+------+------------------+--------+---------------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------------+
|  47 | repl | 172.16.3.154:42173 | NULL | Binlog Dump GTID | 507514 | Master has sent all binlog to slave; waiting for more updates | NULL                                    |
|  48 | repl | 172.16.3.153:57245 | NULL | Binlog Dump GTID | 507412 | Master has sent all binlog to slave; waiting for more updates | NULL                                    |
|  53 | mha  | 172.16.3.152:43681 | NULL | Sleep            |      0 |                                                               | NULL                                    |
| 716 | root | localhost          | test | Query            |     46 | copy to tmp table                                             | alter table sbtest1 drop index k_1      |
| 834 | root | localhost          | test | Query            |      5 | Waiting for table metadata lock                               | update sbtest1 set k=2496416 where id=1 |
| 835 | root | localhost          | NULL | Sleep            |     35 |                                                               | NULL                                    |
| 836 | root | localhost          | db1  | Query            |      0 | starting                                                      | show processlist                        |
+-----+------+--------------------+------+------------------+--------+---------------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------------+


mysql session 3 >mysql session 3 >show processlist;
+-----+------+--------------------+------+------------------+--------+---------------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------------+
| Id  | User | Host               | db   | Command          | Time   | State                                                         | Info                                    |
+-----+------+--------------------+------+------------------+--------+---------------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------------+
|  47 | repl | 172.16.3.154:42173 | NULL | Binlog Dump GTID | 507617 | Master has sent all binlog to slave; waiting for more updates | NULL                                    |
|  48 | repl | 172.16.3.153:57245 | NULL | Binlog Dump GTID | 507515 | Master has sent all binlog to slave; waiting for more updates | NULL                                    |
|  53 | mha  | 172.16.3.152:43681 | NULL | Sleep            |      1 |                                                               | NULL                                    |
| 716 | root | localhost          | test | Query            |     27 | copy to tmp table                                             | alter table sbtest1 add index k_1(k)    |
| 834 | root | localhost          | test | Query            |     20 | Waiting for table metadata lock                               | update sbtest1 set k=2496417 where id=1 |
| 835 | root | localhost          | NULL | Sleep            |    138 |                                                               | NULL                                    |
| 836 | root | localhost          | db1  | Query            |      0 | starting                                                      | show processlist                        |
+-----+------+--------------------+------+------------------+--------+---------------------------------------------------------------+-----------------------------------------+
7 rows in set (0.00 sec)
  • session4
[[email protected] test]# pwd
/mysqlData/data/test
[[email protected] test]# ls -ltr
total 2564148
-rw-r-----. 1 mysql mysql         61 Mar 13 10:45 db.opt
-rw-r-----. 1 mysql mysql       8632 Mar 13 11:25 sbtest2.frm
-rw-r-----. 1 mysql mysql 1224736768 Mar 13 11:26 sbtest2.ibd
-rw-r-----. 1 mysql mysql       8632 Mar 13 11:33 sbtest1.frm
-rw-r-----. 1 mysql mysql 1149239296 Mar 13 11:34 sbtest1.ibd
-rw-r-----. 1 mysql mysql       8632 Mar 13 11:35 #sql-663e_2cc.frm
-rw-r-----. 1 mysql mysql  251658240 Mar 13 11:35 #sql-663e_2cc.ibd
4.新特性online DDL
1.改成online DDL方式

并不影响DML

  • session1
mysql session 1 >set old_alter_table=0;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql session 1 >show variables like ‘%old_alter_table%‘;
+-----------------+-------+
| Variable_name   | Value |
+-----------------+-------+
| old_alter_table | OFF   |
+-----------------+-------+
1 row in set (0.01 sec)

mysql session 1 >alter table sbtest1 drop index k_1;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.07 sec)
Records: 0  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0
# 索引瞬间被删掉了

mysql session 1 >alter table sbtest1 add index k_1(k);
Query OK, 0 rows affected (9.45 sec)
Records: 0  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0
  • session2
mysql session 2 >update sbtest1 set k=2496417 where id=1;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)
Rows matched: 1  Changed: 1  Warnings: 0
# 添加二级索引的时候,也不会阻塞DML
  • session3
mysql session 3 >show processlist;
+------+------+--------------------+------+------------------+--------+---------------------------------------------------------------+--------------------------------------+
| Id   | User | Host               | db   | Command          | Time   | State                                                         | Info                                 |
+------+------+--------------------+------+------------------+--------+---------------------------------------------------------------+--------------------------------------+
|   47 | repl | 172.16.3.154:42173 | NULL | Binlog Dump GTID | 508423 | Master has sent all binlog to slave; waiting for more updates | NULL                                 |
|   48 | repl | 172.16.3.153:57245 | NULL | Binlog Dump GTID | 508321 | Master has sent all binlog to slave; waiting for more updates | NULL                                 |
|   53 | mha  | 172.16.3.152:43681 | NULL | Sleep            |      1 |                                                               | NULL                                 |
|  716 | root | localhost          | test | Query            |      1 | altering table                                                | alter table sbtest1 add index k_1(k) |
| 1328 | root | localhost          | test | Sleep            |      0 |                                                               | NULL                                 |
| 1329 | root | localhost          | db1  | Query            |      0 | starting                                                      | show processlist                     |
+------+------+--------------------+------+------------------+--------+---------------------------------------------------------------+--------------------------------------+
6 rows in set (0.00 sec)
5.大事务之前的online DDL

alter之前有大事务执行,ddl会被阻塞,且后面的所有其他所有请求都会被阻塞
操作DDL之前最好还是先检查一下是否有大事务在进行中

  • session1
mysql session 1 >select * from sbtest1 where c=‘long select before alter‘;
Empty set (2.49 sec)

  • session2
mysql session 2 >alter table sbtest1 add index k_1(k);
Query OK, 0 rows affected (11.46 sec)
Records: 0  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0
  • session3
mysql session 3 >select * from sbtest1 where c=‘long select after alter execution but not complete‘;
Empty set (3.69 sec)
  • session4
mysql session 4 >show processlist;
+------+------+--------------------+------+------------------+--------+---------------------------------------------------------------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Id   | User | Host               | db   | Command          | Time   | State                                                         | Info                                                                               |
+------+------+--------------------+------+------------------+--------+---------------------------------------------------------------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|   47 | repl | 172.16.3.154:42173 | NULL | Binlog Dump GTID | 508885 | Master has sent all binlog to slave; waiting for more updates | NULL                                                                               |
|   48 | repl | 172.16.3.153:57245 | NULL | Binlog Dump GTID | 508783 | Master has sent all binlog to slave; waiting for more updates | NULL                                                                               |
|   53 | mha  | 172.16.3.152:43681 | NULL | Sleep            |      1 |                                                               | NULL                                                                               |
| 1328 | root | localhost          | test | Query            |      1 | Waiting for table metadata lock                               | alter table sbtest1 add index k_1(k)                                               |
| 1329 | root | localhost          | test | Query            |      1 | Waiting for table metadata lock                               | select * from sbtest1 where c=‘long select after alter execution but not complete‘ |
| 1480 | root | localhost          | test | Query            |      2 | Sending data                                                  | select * from sbtest1 where c=‘long select before alter‘                           |
| 1619 | root | localhost          | NULL | Query            |      0 | starting                                                      | show processlist                                                                   |
+------+------+--------------------+------+------------------+--------+---------------------------------------------------------------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
7 rows in set (0.00 sec)
6.添加删除列,不加inplace算法

允许ddl期间进行并发DML操作,并产生临时文件

  • session1,添加删除列
mysql session 1 >ALTER TABLE `sbtest2`     -> ADD COLUMN `f_new_col1` int(11) NULL DEFAULT 0,     -> ADD COLUMN `f_new_col2` varchar(32) NULL DEFAULT ‘‘ AFTER `f_new_col1`;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (51.50 sec)
Records: 0  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0


mysql session 1 >alter table sbtest2 drop column f_new_col1,    -> drop column f_new_col2;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (48.64 sec)
Records: 0  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0
  • session2,进行update
mysql session 2 >update sbtest2 set c="update when add colomun ddl start" where c=‘33333‘;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (25.67 sec)
Rows matched: 0  Changed: 0  Warnings: 0

mysql session 2 >update sbtest2 set c="update when add colomun ddl start" where c=‘33333‘;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (6.15 sec)
Rows matched: 0  Changed: 0  Warnings: 0
  • session3,查询
mysql session 3 >select * from sbtest2 where c=‘select when add colomun ddl start‘;
Empty set (23.74 sec)

mysql session 3 >select * from sbtest2 where c=‘select when add colomun ddl start‘;
Empty set (2.24 sec)
  • session4
mysql session 4 >show processlist;
+-------+------+--------------------+------+------------------+--------+---------------------------------------------------------------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Id    | User | Host               | db   | Command          | Time   | State                                                         | Info                                                                                                 |
+-------+------+--------------------+------+------------------+--------+---------------------------------------------------------------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|    47 | repl | 172.16.3.154:42173 | NULL | Binlog Dump GTID | 523165 | Master has sent all binlog to slave; waiting for more updates | NULL                                                                                                 |
|    48 | repl | 172.16.3.153:57245 | NULL | Binlog Dump GTID | 523063 | Master has sent all binlog to slave; waiting for more updates | NULL                                                                                                 |
|    53 | mha  | 172.16.3.152:43681 | NULL | Sleep            |      0 |                                                               | NULL                                                                                                 |
| 11000 | root | localhost          | NULL | Query            |      0 | starting                                                      | show processlist                                                                                     |
| 11021 | root | localhost          | test | Query            |      9 | altering table                                                | ALTER TABLE `sbtest2` 
ADD COLUMN `f_new_col1` int(11) NULL DEFAULT 0, 
ADD COLUMN `f_new_col2` varc |
| 11110 | root | localhost          | test | Query            |      6 | updating                                                      | update sbtest2 set c="update when add colomun ddl start" where c=‘33333‘                             |
| 11113 | root | localhost          | test | Query            |      5 | Sending data                                                  | select * from sbtest2 where c=‘select when add colomun ddl start‘                                    |
+-------+------+--------------------+------+------------------+--------+---------------------------------------------------------------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
7 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql session 4 >show processlist;
+-------+------+--------------------+------+------------------+--------+---------------------------------------------------------------+--------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Id    | User | Host               | db   | Command          | Time   | State                                                         | Info                                                                     |
+-------+------+--------------------+------+------------------+--------+---------------------------------------------------------------+--------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|    47 | repl | 172.16.3.154:42173 | NULL | Binlog Dump GTID | 523338 | Master has sent all binlog to slave; waiting for more updates | NULL                                                                     |
|    48 | repl | 172.16.3.153:57245 | NULL | Binlog Dump GTID | 523236 | Master has sent all binlog to slave; waiting for more updates | NULL                                                                     |
|    53 | mha  | 172.16.3.152:43681 | NULL | Sleep            |      1 |                                                               | NULL                                                                     |
| 11000 | root | localhost          | NULL | Query            |      0 | starting                                                      | show processlist                                                         |
| 11021 | root | localhost          | test | Query            |     22 | altering table                                                | alter table sbtest2 drop column f_new_col1,
drop column f_new_col2       |
| 11110 | root | localhost          | test | Query            |      6 | updating                                                      | update sbtest2 set c="update when add colomun ddl start" where c=‘33333‘ |
| 11113 | root | localhost          | test | Query            |      2 | Sending data                                                  | select * from sbtest2 where c=‘select when add colomun ddl start‘        |
+-------+------+--------------------+------+------------------+--------+---------------------------------------------------------------+--------------------------------------------------------------------------+
7 rows in set (0.00 sec)
  • session5,产生临时文件
[[email protected] test]# ls -ltr
total 4010036
-rw-r-----. 1 mysql mysql         61 Mar 13 10:45 db.opt
-rw-r-----. 1 mysql mysql       8632 Mar 13 11:56 sbtest1.frm
-rw-r-----. 1 mysql mysql 1275068416 Mar 13 11:57 sbtest1.ibd
-rw-r-----. 1 mysql mysql       8716 Mar 13 15:54 sbtest2.frm
-rw-r-----. 1 mysql mysql 1442840576 Mar 13 15:55 sbtest2.ibd
-rw-r-----. 1 mysql mysql       8632 Mar 13 15:57 #sql-663e_2b0d.frm
-rw-r-----. 1 mysql mysql 1388314624 Mar 13 15:58 #sql-ib87-1396920660.ibd
  • 删除的时候产生的临时文件比ibd更大
[[email protected] test]# ls -ltrh
total 3.9G
-rw-r-----. 1 mysql mysql   61 Mar 13 10:45 db.opt
-rw-r-----. 1 mysql mysql 8.5K Mar 13 11:56 sbtest1.frm
-rw-r-----. 1 mysql mysql 1.2G Mar 13 11:57 sbtest1.ibd
-rw-r-----. 1 mysql mysql 8.5K Mar 13 16:10 sbtest2.frm
-rw-r-----. 1 mysql mysql 1.3G Mar 13 16:11 sbtest2.ibd
-rw-r-----. 1 mysql mysql 8.6K Mar 13 16:12 #sql-663e_2b0d.frm
-rw-r-----. 1 mysql mysql 1.4G Mar 13 16:13 #sql-ib90-1396920666.ibd
7.修改列,加inplace算法(5.7)
  • 1).创建f_new_col2的时候长度是32
mysql session 1 >ALTER TABLE `sbtest2`     -> ADD COLUMN `f_new_col1` int(11) NULL DEFAULT 0,     -> ADD COLUMN `f_new_col2` varchar(32) NULL DEFAULT ‘‘ AFTER `f_new_col1`;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (1 min 4.21 sec)
Records: 0  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0
  • 2).更改f_new_col2长度为50
mysql session 1 >ALTER TABLE sbtest2     -> CHANGE f_new_col2 f_new_col2 varchar(50) NULL DEFAULT ‘‘, algorithm=inplace ;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.09 sec)
Records: 0  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0
  • 3).可以发现长度已经被更改
mysql session 1 >show create table sbtest2;
+---------+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Table   | Create Table                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      |
+---------+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| sbtest2 | CREATE TABLE `sbtest2` (
  `id` int(10) unsigned NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
  `k` int(10) unsigned NOT NULL DEFAULT ‘0‘,
  `c` char(120) NOT NULL DEFAULT ‘‘,
  `pad` char(60) NOT NULL DEFAULT ‘‘,
  `f_new_col1` int(11) DEFAULT ‘0‘,
  `f_new_col2` varchar(50) DEFAULT ‘‘,
  PRIMARY KEY (`id`),
  KEY `k_2` (`k`)
) ENGINE=InnoDB AUTO_INCREMENT=5000001 DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8 MAX_ROWS=1000000 |
+---------+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
  • 4).再更改更长长度时不支持inplace,但是改成长度是50又支持,50改短或长都不支持?
mysql session 1 >ALTER TABLE sbtest2     -> CHANGE f_new_col2 f_new_col2 varchar(150) NULL DEFAULT ‘‘, algorithm=inplace ;
ERROR 1846 (0A000): ALGORITHM=INPLACE is not supported. Reason: Cannot change column type INPLACE. Try ALGORITHM=COPY.
mysql session 1 >ALTER TABLE sbtest2     -> CHANGE f_new_col2 f_new_col2 varchar(32) NULL DEFAULT ‘‘, algorithm=inplace ;
ERROR 1846 (0A000): ALGORITHM=INPLACE is not supported. Reason: Cannot change column type INPLACE. Try ALGORITHM=COPY.
mysql session 1 >ALTER TABLE sbtest2     -> CHANGE f_new_col2 f_new_col2 varchar(50) NULL DEFAULT ‘‘, algorithm=inplace ;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)
Records: 0  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

mysql session 1 >ALTER TABLE sbtest2     -> CHANGE f_new_col2 f_new_col2 varchar(32) NULL DEFAULT ‘‘, algorithm=inplace ;
ERROR 1846 (0A000): ALGORITHM=INPLACE is not supported. Reason: Cannot change column type INPLACE. Try ALGORITHM=COPY.
mysql session 1 >ALTER TABLE sbtest2     -> CHANGE f_new_col2 f_new_col2 varchar(88) NULL DEFAULT ‘‘, algorithm=inplace ;
ERROR 1846 (0A000): ALGORITHM=INPLACE is not supported. Reason: Cannot change column type INPLACE. Try ALGORITHM=COPY.

修改列类型应该要rebuild整张表

8.继续上面的修改列长度(5.7)

ddl堵塞DML,但是不阻塞select

  • 1).session1
mysql session 1 >ALTER TABLE sbtest2     -> CHANGE f_new_col2 f_new_col2 varchar(200) NULL DEFAULT ‘‘;
Query OK, 5000000 rows affected (1 min 28.96 sec)
Records: 5000000  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0
  • 2).session2
mysql session 2 >update sbtest2 set c="update when add colomun ddl start" where c=‘33333‘;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (1 min 34.01 sec)
Rows matched: 0  Changed: 0  Warnings: 0
  • 3).session3
mysql session 3 >select * from sbtest2 where c=‘select when add colomun ddl start‘;
Empty set (2.82 sec)
  • 4).session4
mysql session 4 >show processlist;
+-------+------+--------------------+------+------------------+--------+---------------------------------------------------------------+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Id    | User | Host               | db   | Command          | Time   | State                                                         | Info                                                                           |
+-------+------+--------------------+------+------------------+--------+---------------------------------------------------------------+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|    47 | repl | 172.16.3.154:42173 | NULL | Binlog Dump GTID | 524786 | Master has sent all binlog to slave; waiting for more updates | NULL                                                                           |
|    48 | repl | 172.16.3.153:57245 | NULL | Binlog Dump GTID | 524684 | Master has sent all binlog to slave; waiting for more updates | NULL                                                                           |
|    53 | mha  | 172.16.3.152:43681 | NULL | Sleep            |      1 |                                                               | NULL                                                                           |
| 11000 | root | localhost          | NULL | Query            |      0 | starting                                                      | show processlist                                                               |
| 11021 | root | localhost          | test | Query            |      3 | copy to tmp table                                             | ALTER TABLE sbtest2 
CHANGE f_new_col2 f_new_col2 varchar(200) NULL DEFAULT ‘‘ |
| 12186 | root | localhost          | test | Query            |      2 | Waiting for table metadata lock                               | update sbtest2 set c="update when add colomun ddl start" where c=‘33333‘       |
| 12189 | root | localhost          | test | Query            |      1 | Sending data                                                  | select * from sbtest2 where c=‘select when add colomun ddl start‘              |
+-------+------+--------------------+------+------------------+--------+---------------------------------------------------------------+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
7 rows in set (0.01 sec)
  • 5).session5,copy肯定是产生临时文件
[[email protected] test]# ls -ltrh
total 3.2G
-rw-r-----. 1 mysql mysql   61 Mar 13 10:45 db.opt
-rw-r-----. 1 mysql mysql 8.5K Mar 13 11:56 sbtest1.frm
-rw-r-----. 1 mysql mysql 1.2G Mar 13 11:57 sbtest1.ibd
-rw-r-----. 1 mysql mysql 1.4G Mar 13 16:13 sbtest2.ibd
-rw-r-----. 1 mysql mysql 8.6K Mar 13 16:15 sbtest2.frm
-rw-r-----. 1 mysql mysql 8.6K Mar 13 16:21 #sql-663e_2b0d.frm
-rw-r-----. 1 mysql mysql 648M Mar 13 16:22 #sql-663e_2b0d.ibd

https://www.cnblogs.com/zengkefu/p/5674945.html
https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.6/en/upgrading-from-previous-series.html


OAK DDL

5.6之前使用第三方工具进行ddl

1.oak_online_alter_table前提条件
  • 1.单列唯一索引,联合索引和联合主键索引不可以,触发mysqlbug
  • 2.没有外键foreign key
  • 3.没有定义触发器,有的话也一棍打死
2.oak ddl流程
  • 1.确认表符合oak_online_alter_table的执行条件
  • 2.如果有触发器,备份触发器,删除触发器
  • 3.预估oak命令执行时间,表有1亿,1秒执行3000条,大概执行12个小时,计划时间执行
  • 4.进行新旧表数据校验,如果DDL改变了表字段类型,可能导致表数据变化
  • 5.表切换rename
  • 6.删除原表触发器
  • 7.删除表
3.check list功能
./run_bat IP onlineddl_check port dbname tabname
4.检查外键和触发器SQL
  • 1.information_schema.key_column_usage
  • 2.select * from information_schema.key_column_usage where table_schema=dbname and table_name=tabname and referenced_table_name is not null
  • 3.select * from information_schema.key_column_usage where referenced_table_schema=dbname and referenced_table_name=tabname;
5.安装openark-kit工具包
wget -O /etc/yum.repos.d/oak.repo http://download.opensuse.org/repositories/home:LenzGr/CentOS_7/home:LenzGr.repo
install openark-kit
6.操作过程
  • 1).构造测试数据
sysbench --test=insert.lua --oltp-table-size=500000 --mysql-table-engine=innodb --mysql-user=root --mysql-password=123456 --mysql-port=3306 --mysql-host=localhost --mysql-db=test --max-requests=0 --time=60 --oltp-tables-count=2 --report-interval=10 --threads=2 prepare
  • 2).检查是否有触发器
select trigger_schema,trigger_name,event_object_schema,event_object_table from information_schema.triggers where event_object_schema=‘test‘;
  • 3).执行online DDL
oak-online-alter-table -u root --ask-pass -S /usr/local/mysql/mysql.sock -d test -t sbtest1 -g new_sbtest1 -a "add last_update_time timestamp NOT NULL DEFAULT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP ON UPDATE CURRENT_TIMESTAMP,add key last_update_time(last_update_time)" --sleep=300 --skip-delete-pass

执行ddl的时候,依然可以进行ddl操作

[email protected] 22:34:  [test]> insert into sbtest1 values(10000000,10000,‘AAAAA‘,‘BBBBB‘);
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.01 sec)
  • 4).执行校验
select sum(crc32(concat(ifnull(id,‘NULL‘),ifnull(k,‘NULL‘)))) as sum from sbtest1 union all \ 
select sum(crc32(concat(ifnull(id,‘NULL‘),ifnull(k,‘NULL‘)))) as sum from new_sbtest1;

# select count(*) from sbtest1 union all select count(*) from new_sbtest1;
[email protected] 22:34:  [test]> select count(*) from sbtest1 union all select count(*) from new_sbtest1;
+----------+
| count(*) |
+----------+
|   500001 |
|   291001 |
+----------+
2 rows in set (0.19 sec)
# 

desc sbtest1;
desc new_sbtest1;

  • 5).因为在原表增加了触发器,即使ddl完成之后,新的DML依然会插入到新表
[email protected] 22:34:  [test]> select trigger_schema,trigger_name,event_object_schema,event_object_table from information_schema.triggers where event_object_schema=‘test‘;
+----------------+----------------+---------------------+--------------------+
| trigger_schema | trigger_name   | event_object_schema | event_object_table |
+----------------+----------------+---------------------+--------------------+
| test           | sbtest1_AI_oak | test                | sbtest1            |
| test           | sbtest1_AU_oak | test                | sbtest1            |
| test           | sbtest1_AD_oak | test                | sbtest1            |
+----------------+----------------+---------------------+--------------------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)
[email protected] 22:38:  [test]> select count(*) from sbtest1 union all select count(*) from new_sbtest1;
+----------+
| count(*) |
+----------+
|   500001 |
|   500001 |
+----------+
2 rows in set (0.16 sec)

[email protected] 22:38:  [test]> insert into sbtest1 values(10000001,10000,‘AAAAA‘,‘BBBBB‘);
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)

[email protected] 22:39:  [test]> select count(*) from sbtest1 union all select count(*) from new_sbtest1;
+----------+
| count(*) |
+----------+
|   500002 |
|   500002 |
+----------+
2 rows in set (0.16 sec)

  • 6).表切换,更改数据字典
use test;
set names utf8;
rename table sbtest1 to old_sbtest1,new_sbtest1 to sbtest1;
  • 7).删除触发器和原表

drop trigger sbtest1_AI_oak;
drop trigger sbtest1_AU_oak;
drop trigger sbtest1_AD_oak;
drop table old_sbtest1;

[email protected] 22:40:  [test]> show tables;
+----------------+
| Tables_in_test |
+----------------+
| old_sbtest1    |
| sbtest1        |
| sbtest2        |
+----------------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

[email protected] 22:41:  [test]> select trigger_schema,trigger_name,event_object_schema,event_object_table from information_schema.triggers where event_object_schema=‘test‘;
+----------------+----------------+---------------------+--------------------+
| trigger_schema | trigger_name   | event_object_schema | event_object_table |
+----------------+----------------+---------------------+--------------------+
| test           | sbtest1_AI_oak | test                | old_sbtest1        |
| test           | sbtest1_AU_oak | test                | old_sbtest1        |
| test           | sbtest1_AD_oak | test                | old_sbtest1        |
+----------------+----------------+---------------------+--------------------+
3 rows in set (0.01 sec)

[email protected] 22:41:  [test]> drop trigger sbtest1_AI_oak;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

[email protected] 22:41:  [test]> drop trigger sbtest1_AU_oak;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)

[email protected] 22:41:  [test]> drop trigger sbtest1_AD_oak;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)

[email protected] 22:41:  [test]> drop table old_sbtest1;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.23 sec)

[email protected] 22:41:  [test]> show tables;
+----------------+
| Tables_in_test |
+----------------+
| sbtest1        |
| sbtest2        |
+----------------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

7.用oak做Online DDL,如果rename那一步操作错了?在从库上rename了怎么恢复?(包含旧表删除和trigger删除).
  • 1)第一种情况加索引的Online DDL
  • 2)第二种情况加字段的Online DDL

发现rename错表了?
再做一次drop ddl

不是从主库进行ddl,选择从库ddl,从库rename错了,想恢复?

http://www.cnblogs.com/xuanzhi201111/p/4549250.html
http://www.cnblogs.com/xinysu/p/6732646.html#_lab2_4_3

mysql小白系列_13 Online DDL

标签:when   修改   long   AC   开启   数据   views   ring   upgrading   

原文地址:https://www.cnblogs.com/jenvid/p/8563560.html

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