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Restful Api 最佳实践

时间:2018-11-09 19:31:38      阅读:21      评论:0      收藏:0      [点我收藏+]

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重新梳理了下基于net webapi 搭建restful api,也重新翻查了一些资料:

RESTful API 设计最佳实践

https://www.zcfy.cc/article/restful-api-design-best-practices-in-a-nutshell

查询(Query)分析总结

http://www.cnblogs.com/xishuai/p/designing-rest-api-uri-query-and-identify.html

github api url

{
  "current_user_url": "https://api.github.com/user",
  "current_user_authorizations_html_url": "https://github.com/settings/connections/applications{/client_id}",
  "authorizations_url": "https://api.github.com/authorizations",
  "code_search_url": "https://api.github.com/search/code?q={query}{&page,per_page,sort,order}",
  "commit_search_url": "https://api.github.com/search/commits?q={query}{&page,per_page,sort,order}",
  "emails_url": "https://api.github.com/user/emails",
  "emojis_url": "https://api.github.com/emojis",
  "events_url": "https://api.github.com/events",
  "feeds_url": "https://api.github.com/feeds",
  "followers_url": "https://api.github.com/user/followers",
  "following_url": "https://api.github.com/user/following{/target}",
  "gists_url": "https://api.github.com/gists{/gist_id}",
  "hub_url": "https://api.github.com/hub",
  "issue_search_url": "https://api.github.com/search/issues?q={query}{&page,per_page,sort,order}",
  "issues_url": "https://api.github.com/issues",
  "keys_url": "https://api.github.com/user/keys",
  "notifications_url": "https://api.github.com/notifications",
  "organization_repositories_url": "https://api.github.com/orgs/{org}/repos{?type,page,per_page,sort}",
  "organization_url": "https://api.github.com/orgs/{org}",
  "public_gists_url": "https://api.github.com/gists/public",
  "rate_limit_url": "https://api.github.com/rate_limit",
  "repository_url": "https://api.github.com/repos/{owner}/{repo}",
  "repository_search_url": "https://api.github.com/search/repositories?q={query}{&page,per_page,sort,order}",
  "current_user_repositories_url": "https://api.github.com/user/repos{?type,page,per_page,sort}",
  "starred_url": "https://api.github.com/user/starred{/owner}{/repo}",
  "starred_gists_url": "https://api.github.com/gists/starred",
  "team_url": "https://api.github.com/teams",
  "user_url": "https://api.github.com/users/{user}",
  "user_organizations_url": "https://api.github.com/user/orgs",
  "user_repositories_url": "https://api.github.com/users/{user}/repos{?type,page,per_page,sort}",
  "user_search_url": "https://api.github.com/search/users?q={query}{&page,per_page,sort,order}"
}

总结

具体概念及设计原则,参见以上博客比我写的更好。主要有几个点需要注意下:

查询(get)

当多参数查询时,大多方案都是通过url,需要考虑url长度限制,否则需要考虑其它方案:

 "user_search_url": "https://api.github.com/search/users?q={query}{&page,per_page,sort,order}"

HttpPut请求总是405

http://www.cnblogs.com/shanyou/archive/2012/03/23/2414252.html

        [HttpPut]
        public string EidtOrder(string id,[FromBody]FooBar m)
        {
            return id+ Newtonsoft.Json.JsonConvert.SerializeObject(m);
        }

  技术分享图片

 

针对api多版本管理路由

当然通过Route注解指定action版本是可以的,但是特繁琐。通用的解决方案是自定义版本选择器替换掉原有的HttpControllerSelector即可。

namespace CYTS.Ticket.Expo.Api.App_Start
{
    public class VersionHttpControllerSelector : IHttpControllerSelector
    {
        private const string VersionKey = "version";
        private const string ControllerKey = "controller";

        private readonly HttpConfiguration _configuration;
        private readonly Lazy<Dictionary<string, HttpControllerDescriptor>> _controllers;
        private readonly HashSet<string> _duplicates;

        public VersionHttpControllerSelector(HttpConfiguration config)
        {
            _configuration = config;
            _duplicates = new HashSet<string>(StringComparer.OrdinalIgnoreCase);
            _controllers = new Lazy<Dictionary<string, HttpControllerDescriptor>>(InitializeControllerDictionary);
        }

        private Dictionary<string, HttpControllerDescriptor> InitializeControllerDictionary()
        {
            var dictionary = new Dictionary<string, HttpControllerDescriptor>(StringComparer.OrdinalIgnoreCase);

            // Create a lookup table where key is "namespace.controller". The value of "namespace" is the last
            // segment of the full namespace. For example:
            // MyApplication.Controllers.V1.ProductsController => "V1.Products"
            IAssembliesResolver assembliesResolver = _configuration.Services.GetAssembliesResolver();
            IHttpControllerTypeResolver controllersResolver = _configuration.Services.GetHttpControllerTypeResolver();

            ICollection<Type> controllerTypes = controllersResolver.GetControllerTypes(assembliesResolver);

            foreach (Type t in controllerTypes)
            {
                var segments = t.Namespace.Split(Type.Delimiter);

                // For the dictionary key, strip "Controller" from the end of the type name.
                // This matches the behavior of DefaultHttpControllerSelector.
                var controllerName = t.Name.Remove(t.Name.Length - DefaultHttpControllerSelector.ControllerSuffix.Length);
                string version = segments[segments.Length - 1];
                var key = String.Format(CultureInfo.InvariantCulture, "{0}.{1}", version, controllerName);
                if (version == "Controllers")
                {
                    key = String.Format(CultureInfo.InvariantCulture, "{0}", controllerName);
                }
                // Check for duplicate keys.
                if (dictionary.Keys.Contains(key))
                {
                    _duplicates.Add(key);
                }
                else
                {
                    dictionary[key] = new HttpControllerDescriptor(_configuration, t.Name, t);
                }
            }

            // Remove any duplicates from the dictionary, because these create ambiguous matches. 
            // For example, "Foo.V1.ProductsController" and "Bar.V1.ProductsController" both map to "v1.products".
            foreach (string s in _duplicates)
            {
                dictionary.Remove(s);
            }
            return dictionary;
        }

        // Get a value from the route data, if present.
        private static T GetRouteVariable<T>(IHttpRouteData routeData, string name)
        {
            object result = null;
            if (routeData.Values.TryGetValue(name, out result))
            {
                return (T)result;
            }
            return default(T);
        }

        public HttpControllerDescriptor SelectController(HttpRequestMessage request)
        {
            IHttpRouteData routeData = request.GetRouteData();
            if (routeData == null)
            {
                throw new HttpResponseException(HttpStatusCode.NotFound);
            }

            // Get the version and controller variables from the route data.
            string version = GetRouteVariable<string>(routeData, VersionKey);
            if (string.IsNullOrEmpty(version))
            {
                version = GetVersionFromHTTPHeaderAndAcceptHeader(request);
            }
            string controllerName = GetRouteVariable<string>(routeData, ControllerKey);
            if (controllerName == null)
            {
                throw new HttpResponseException(HttpStatusCode.NotFound);
            }

            // Find a matching controller.
            string key = String.Format(CultureInfo.InvariantCulture, "{0}", controllerName);
            if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(version))
            {
                key = String.Format(CultureInfo.InvariantCulture, "{0}.{1}", version, controllerName);
            }

            HttpControllerDescriptor controllerDescriptor;
            if (_controllers.Value.TryGetValue(key, out controllerDescriptor))
            {
                return controllerDescriptor;
            }
            else if (_duplicates.Contains(key))
            {
                throw new HttpResponseException(
                    request.CreateErrorResponse(HttpStatusCode.InternalServerError,
                    "Multiple controllers were found that match this request."));
            }
            else
            {
                throw new HttpResponseException(HttpStatusCode.NotFound);
            }
        }

        public IDictionary<string, HttpControllerDescriptor> GetControllerMapping()
        {
            return _controllers.Value;
        }
        private string GetVersionFromHTTPHeaderAndAcceptHeader(HttpRequestMessage request)
        {
            if (request.Headers.Contains(VersionKey))
            {
                var versionHeader = request.Headers.GetValues(VersionKey).FirstOrDefault();
                if (versionHeader != null)
                {
                    return versionHeader;
                }
            }
            var acceptHeader = request.Headers.Accept;
            foreach (var mime in acceptHeader)
            {
                if (mime.MediaType == "application/json" || mime.MediaType == "text/html")
                {
                    var version = mime.Parameters
                                     .Where(v => v.Name.Equals(VersionKey, StringComparison.OrdinalIgnoreCase))
                                      .FirstOrDefault();

                    if (version != null)
                    {
                        return version.Value;
                    }
                    return string.Empty;
                }
            }
            return string.Empty;
        }
    }
}

路由配置:

config.Routes.MapHttpRoute(
                   name: "DefaultVersion",
                   routeTemplate: "api/{version}/{controller}/{id}",
                   defaults: new { id = RouteParameter.Optional }
               );

将自定义的VersionControllerSelector注册到系统中:

        config.Services.Replace(typeof(IHttpControllerSelector), new VersionHttpControllerSelector(config));

 

在Controller创建版本:

技术分享图片

访问:

技术分享图片

 

Restful Api 最佳实践

标签:each   eid   ace   else   public   title   logs   pre   hashset   

原文地址:https://www.cnblogs.com/tianboblog/p/9936569.html

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